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Working Mothers

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Gustav Yegorov
Gustav Yegorov


Long-chain aliphatic amines could potentially be used interchangeably in some industrial processes. Additionally, several long-chain aliphatic amines may be used and released to the same environment from the same site. Therefore, the ecological exposure scenarios consider long-chain aliphatic amines collectively, and the scenarios are based on industrial site capacities for the substances. Scenarios were considered that are expected to have a high potential for release to the environment and for which sufficient information was available for the development of an exposure scenario. These include releases to aquatic and terrestrial systems, with some scenarios addressed quantitatively and others qualitatively. The scenarios covered in this assessment include the production of long-chain aliphatic amines, processing of long-chain aliphatic amines as intermediates to produce other chemicals, polyurethane foam production, release from cleaning products containing unreacted residues, flotation treatment in mineral ore extraction, asphalt emulsions, fertilizer application and formulation, and sludge application to agricultural soils. Each of these scenarios is described in more detail below. There are no monitoring results included in this section, as there are currently no data on environmental concentrations of long-chain aliphatic amines in Canada.


There is uncertainty regarding the bioavailability of long-chain aliphatic amines in the environment, and the degree to which it is impacted by their sorption to particulate and dissolved organic carbon and to suspended and bottom sediment. Sorption to organic carbon was estimated using the median TOC concentration, and aquatic PECs were adjusted accordingly. However, a similar estimation for sediments could not be done due to the high degree of variability in sediments and associated uncertainties. In some situations (e.g., sediments with high amounts of clay and organic carbon), sorption to sediments may be high, resulting in lower freely dissolved concentrations in the water, while in other situations (e.g., sandy or gravel sediments with low organic carbon), sorption may be minimal. However, there is also evidence that sorption of aliphatic amines is reversible, and some degree of desorption can also take place. Environmental monitoring data, as well as field studies to examine the sorption and partitioning of long-chain aliphatic amines in environmental compartments, could be helpful in addressing this uncertainty.

Short-term studies have been conducted on the analogue dodecyldimethylamine. In a 28-day, oral gavage study, Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats (n=6/sex/group) were given 0, 4, 20, and 100 mg/kg bw/day dodecyldimethylamine (in 0.1% Tween80 added to 0.5% CMC-Na) (Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Institute Ltd. 2003). Additional satellite animals (control and high-dose) were monitored for an additional 14 days following treatment to examine recovery. Body weight, food consumption, hematology, biochemistry, organ weights, functional observation battery, urinalysis, and histopathological findings were recorded in accordance with OECD TG 407. At doses greater than or equal to 20 mg/kg bw/day, myocardial degeneration/fibrosis of the heart (slight to moderate in severity) were detected in male animals. At 100 mg/kg bw/day, there were also findings of thickened wall and erosion of the forestomach, which were accompanied by edema, hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltration. The authors established a NOAEL of 4 mg/kg bw/day on the basis of the effects on the heart at the next dose level of 20 mg/kg bw/day.


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