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Carter White
Carter White

Download Amazing Bacteria Images - High Quality and Diverse Collection

PulseNet is a national laboratory network that connects cases of foodborne illnesses cases together using DNA fingerprinting of the bacteria making people sick. Various shots show a microbiologist going through the process of one type of DNA fingerprinting technique, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The last few clips show database managers analyzing these DNA fingerprints in the national databases in order to detect and define outbreaks.

Global workflow using deep learning for automatic detection of infection towards supporting COVID-19 screening from chest X-ray images. In a COVID-19 epidemic context, a detected viral pneumonia can particularly presume a COVID-19 infection

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This microscopic image shows dozens of individual bacterial cells of the recently discovered species Tersicoccus phoenicis. This species has been found in only two places: clean rooms in Florida and South America where spacecraft are assembled for launch. Spacecraft clean rooms are one of the most thoroughly checked environments on Earth for what microbes are present. The monitoring provides an indication of what species might get into space aboard a spacecraft.

Antibiotics of the β-lactam group are able to alter the shape of the bacterial cell wall, e.g. filamentation or a spheroplast formation. Early determination of antimicrobial susceptibility may be complicated by filamentation of bacteria as this can be falsely interpreted as growth in systems relying on colorimetry or turbidometry (such as Vitek-2, Phoenix, MicroScan WalkAway). The objective was to examine an automated image analysis algorithm for quantification of filamentous bacteria using the 3D digital microscopy imaging system, oCelloScope.

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Beta-lactam antimicrobials are widely used to treat infections; however, the alarming spread of β-lactam resistance is increasingly reported worldwide and represents a major health issue [9]. Among the most important resistance mechanisms to penicillins and cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae are extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) [10]. As infections caused by ESBL-producing pathogens may not be responsive to treatment with most penicillins and cephalosporins, and as the genes encoding this resistance mechanism are harbored on plasmids and readily transferrable, their presence in a hospital setting should be identified quickly to ensure appropriate antimicrobial therapy [11, 12].

In a previous study, we demonstrated the oCelloScope system as a fast and sensitive AST method [13]. The oCelloScope system provides information on growth kinetics based on advanced algorithms analyzing image material. In this study, we present an image analysis algorithm quantifying the length of bacteria and thus changes in bacterial morphology. This is particularly important when testing antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactam. β-lactam-antibiotics are known to induce morphological changes in bacteria (e.g. filamentation or spheroplast formation) [8]. Rapid detection of these changes may therefore have important clinical implications.

The oCelloScope is a digital time-lapse microscopy technology that scans through a fluid sample generating series of images as previously described in 2013 by Fredborg et al. [13]. The oCelloScope instrument was placed inside an Innova 44 incubator (New Brunswick Scientific) allowing precise temperature regulation. As a result of the tilted imaging plane, the images recorded by the oCelloScope system constitute a parallelepipedum that forms the image stack. The projected z-stack image of a single z-plane was generated by combining the tilted images. Each well was scanned repeatedly every 15 min for 12 h. Time-lapse experiments, digital analysis, and image processing were conducted by a custom automation script in MATLAB (MATLAB Version: (R2012b), The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA, 2000). Growth kinetics was determined by image stack processing based on contrast based Segmentation and Extraction of Surface Area (SESA). The Segmentation Extracted Average Length (SEAL) algorithm was designed to detect filamentation of rod shaped bacteria. SEAL determines the mean bacterial length and use contrast-based segmentation followed by morphological filtering on a projected z-stack image to measure the major axis length of each individual object. SEAL is limited when cells are overlapping and may lead to inaccurate determination of bacterial length at high cell concentrations or if bacterial filaments are crossing each other. Objects that spans the edge of the field of view are not included. GraphPad Prism version 6.00 for Windows, (GraphPad Software, San Diego, California, USA) was used for data analysis and graphing.

Effect of piperacillin on growth and length of E. coli obtained by the oCelloScope system. a Quantification of bacterial growth kinetics and filamentation was determined for untreated (stippled lines) and cefotaxime-treated (solid lines) E. coli by two different algorithms: Growth kinetics (blue graphs) was measured based on segmentation and extraction of surface area, and bacterial length (green graphs) based on segmentation extracted average length. Images of E. coli morphology treated with 8 mg/L of cefotaxime were obtained by the oCelloScope system at time b 60 min, c 120 min, d 180 min, and at e 240 min

Even though 8 mg/L cefotaxime is the CLSI breakpoint concentration for ESBL-producing E. coli strains [18] and not for the E. coli reference control strain, it clearly demonstrates the point that if susceptibility of this strain was to be determined after 90 min based on the growth determining algorithm or systems relying on colorimetry or turbidometry, it would lead to the classification of this strain to be resistant to cefotaxime at the concentration of 8 mg/L. The ability of the length quantifying algorithm to differ between bacterial growth and filamentation, and in this situation clearly state that the latter is the case, enables correction of the falsely interpretation of filamentation as growth. Since filamentation is not directly correlated with antibiotic susceptibility or resistance, this cannot be determined at this time point, which is pivotal knowledge in relation to early AST.

We presented an automated image-based algorithm which enables determination of antibiotic-induced filamentation. The method facilitates high-throughput screening of bacterial filamentation and thus has the potential to enhance antimicrobial susceptibility testing by providing this important knowledge to eliminate false susceptibility results in automated systems. The ability to determine the absence of filamentation and thereby the growth and resistance to an antibiotic enables the oCelloScope to be used as an early predictor of resistant bacteria. As for fast and accurate elucidation of filamentation and antibiotic resistance of clinical samples, it is recommended that the bacteria are in their exponential growth phase prior to addition of antimicrobials, and that the same growth media is used in the preparation and screening of the bacteria. Optimization of growth media to different bacterial strains and to the fastest rate of filamentation is endorsed.

The authors would like to thank Aida Droce for light microscopy images of E. coli. This work was supported by grants from the Danish National Innovation Foundation 137-2012 and from the Danish Agency for Science 4005-00204B.

Piperacillin-induced filamentation in E. coli . The time-lapse movies show E. coli treated with piperacillin (PIP, 64 mg/L) and without (Positive control), respectively; as well as graphs showing growth and average length of the bacteria. (MOV 4671 kb)

This SEM image shows a mature pneumococcal biofilm: the nearly round structures of S. pneumonaie bacteria are organizing together a matrix of smaller, oddly shaped material surrounding them that makes them more resistant to environmental stresses and antimicrobial agents. (Credit: Laura Marks)

Hakansson and his co-authors became interested in the possibility that some bacteria might persist on surfaces when they published work last year showing that bacteria form biofilms when colonizing human tissues. They found that these sophisticated, highly structured biofilm communities are hardier than other forms of bacteria.

He explains that studies of how long bacteria survive on inanimate objects have used cultures grown in laboratory media, called broth-grown planktonic bacteria, and invariably show that bacteria die rapidly.

TrackMate works indifferently in 2D or 3D. Below is a movie showing the first 2 hours of a C.elegans embryo development, followed in 3D over time using TrackMate (strain: AZ212).(However, the object contour is displayed only for 2D images.)

Following cell morphology over several divisions within a lineage. The lineage follows the growth of a Nesseiria meningitidis. The bottom graphs display the cell area and circularity for the cell highlighted in green in the above lineage. For 2D images, TrackMate can measure the morphological features of the objects it tracks.

Thanks to continuous integration, the extensions we are aware of are built automatically and can be downloaded following the links below. They point to a simple .jar file that you just have to drop in your folder. TrackMate will recognise the extra modules it ships and will integrate them in the plugin.

Illumination correction is often important for both accurate segmentation and for intensity measurements. This example shows how the CorrectIlluminationCalculate and CorrectIlluminationApply modules are used to compensate for the non-uniformities in illumination often present in microscopy images. Download (17.6 MB)Tutorial

In this human cytoplasm-nucleus translocation assay, learn how to load a previously calculated illumination correction function for two separate channels, measure protein content in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and calculate the ratio as a measure of translocation. This is a clumpy cell type, so studying the settings in primary object identification may be helpful for users interested in the more advanced options that module offers. More about these images can be found at the BBBC. Download (4.4 MB)


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