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Gustav Yegorov
Gustav Yegorov

How to Master Cariology with Mobi Books: A Comprehensive and Practical Approach


Cariology mobi download book: A comprehensive guide for dental students and professionals




If you are interested in learning more about cariology, the science and clinical management of dental caries, you are in the right place. In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive overview of the topic, as well as some recommendations for the best books on cariology that you can download in mobi format and read on your Kindle or other devices.




Cariology mobi download book



But first, what is cariology and why is it important? And what is a mobi format and how to download and read it? Let's find out.


What is cariology and why is it important?




Cariology is the branch of dentistry that studies the causes, mechanisms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting humans worldwide. It is caused by the demineralization of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel and dentin) by acids produced by bacteria that colonize the oral cavity. If left untreated, dental caries can lead to pain, infection, tooth loss, impaired chewing function, reduced quality of life, and increased health care costs.


Therefore, cariology is an essential subject for dental students and professionals who want to understand the disease process and provide optimal care for their patients. Cariology covers topics such as the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental caries, as well as the restoration of teeth affected by caries. By mastering these topics, you will be able to prevent or minimize the occurrence and progression of dental caries in yourself and your patients, as well as restore the form and function of teeth damaged by caries.


What is a mobi format and how to download and read it?




A mobi format is a file format that is designed for e-books. It is compatible with Kindle devices and apps, as well as other e-readers that support this format. A mobi format allows you to read e-books on different devices with adjustable font size, bookmarks, annotations, highlights, and other features.


To download a mobi format book, you need to find a reliable source that offers the book you want in this format. You can either buy the book from an online store, such as Amazon, or download it for free from a legal website, such as Project Gutenberg. Once you have downloaded the book, you need to transfer it to your device. If you have a Kindle device, you can either connect it to your computer via a USB cable and drag and drop the file to the documents folder, or email the file to your Kindle email address and sync your device. If you have another device, such as a smartphone or a tablet, you can either use a file manager app to move the file to the appropriate folder, or use an e-reader app, such as Kindle, to open the file.


To read a mobi format book, you need to use an app that can read this format. If you have a Kindle device or app, you can simply open the book from your library and start reading. If you have another app, such as iBooks or Google Play Books, you may need to convert the file to another format, such as epub or pdf, using an online converter, such as Zamzar or Online-Convert. Once you have converted the file, you can open it with your app and enjoy reading.


The science of cariology: How dental caries develop and progress




Now that you know what cariology is and how to download and read a mobi format book, let's dive into the science of cariology. In this section, we will explain how dental caries develop and progress in the hard tissues of the teeth. We will cover topics such as the etiology of dental caries, the stages of dental caries, and the diagnosis of dental caries.


The etiology of dental caries: The role of bacteria, diet, saliva, and host factors




The etiology of dental caries is multifactorial, meaning that it involves several factors that interact with each other. These factors can be classified into four main categories: bacteria, diet, saliva, and host factors.


Bacteria are the primary cause of dental caries. They form a biofilm on the surface of the teeth called plaque. Plaque contains various types of bacteria that metabolize carbohydrates from food and produce acids that lower the pH of the plaque and the surrounding environment. These acids dissolve the minerals (calcium and phosphate) from the enamel and dentin, resulting in demineralization and cavitation.


Diet is another important factor in dental caries. The frequency and amount of carbohydrate intake affect the amount and duration of acid production by plaque bacteria. Foods that are sticky, sugary, or acidic are more likely to cause dental caries than foods that are fibrous, protein-rich, or alkaline. Foods that stimulate saliva flow, such as cheese or sugar-free gum, can help neutralize acids and remineralize teeth.


Saliva is a natural defense mechanism against dental caries. It has several functions that protect the teeth from demineralization and promote remineralization. These functions include buffering acids, washing away food debris and bacteria, providing calcium and phosphate ions for remineralization, inhibiting bacterial growth and adhesion, and enhancing enamel maturation and repair.


Host factors are the characteristics of the individual that influence their susceptibility to dental caries. These include genetic factors, such as tooth morphology, enamel structure and composition, salivary composition and flow rate; environmental factors, such as fluoride exposure, oral hygiene habits, medication use; and behavioral factors, such as dietary habits, smoking status, stress level.


The stages of dental caries: Initial, moderate, and advanced lesions




The stages of dental caries describe the extent and severity of the disease process in the hard tissues of the teeth. They can be classified into three main categories: initial lesions (also known as white spot lesions), moderate lesions (also known as cavitated lesions), and advanced lesions (also known as deep lesions).


Initial lesions are the earliest signs of dental caries. They appear as white or chalky spots on the enamel surface that are usually visible only after drying the tooth. They are caused by subsurface demineralization of enamel by acids from plaque bacteria. They are reversible if remineralization occurs by saliva or fluoride.


Moderate lesions are more advanced stages of dental caries. They appear as brown or black spots on the enamel surface that are visible even when wet. They are caused by further demineralization of enamel and dentin by acids from plaque bacteria. They are irreversible if cavitation occurs by mechanical forces or bacterial enzymes.


extensive demineralization and destruction of enamel, dentin, and pulp by acids from plaque bacteria and secondary infection. They are associated with pain, inflammation, infection, and tooth loss.


The diagnosis of dental caries: Visual, tactile, radiographic, and other methods




The diagnosis of dental caries is the process of identifying and assessing the presence and severity of dental caries in the teeth. It is based on various methods that provide different types of information about the disease. These methods include visual, tactile, radiographic, and other methods.


Visual methods are the most commonly used methods for diagnosing dental caries. They involve inspecting the teeth for signs of demineralization or cavitation using natural or artificial light, magnification, and drying. They are simple, inexpensive, and non-invasive, but they have limitations in detecting early or hidden lesions.


Tactile methods are supplementary methods for diagnosing dental caries. They involve probing the teeth for signs of softening or roughness using a sharp instrument, such as a dental explorer or a periodontal probe. They are useful for confirming cavitation or assessing lesion depth, but they have risks of damaging the enamel or spreading bacteria.


Radiographic methods are additional methods for diagnosing dental caries. They involve taking x-ray images of the teeth to reveal signs of demineralization or cavitation in areas that are not visible to the eye, such as interproximal surfaces or root surfaces. They are helpful for detecting hidden or advanced lesions, but they have drawbacks of exposing the patient to radiation and having low sensitivity and specificity.


Other methods are alternative methods for diagnosing dental caries. They involve using various devices or techniques that measure physical or chemical properties of the teeth related to caries activity, such as electrical resistance, laser fluorescence, optical coherence tomography, or salivary tests. They are promising for detecting early or active lesions, but they have limitations of being expensive, complex, or unreliable.


The clinical management of cariology: How to prevent and treat dental caries




After learning about the science of cariology, let's move on to the clinical management of cariology. In this section, we will explain how to prevent and treat dental caries in yourself and your patients. We will cover topics such as the prevention of dental caries, the treatment of dental caries, and the restoration of dental caries.


The prevention of dental caries: Oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, sealants, and other measures




The prevention of dental caries is the best strategy for maintaining oral health and avoiding complications from dental caries. It involves various measures that aim to reduce or eliminate the risk factors for dental caries development and progression. These measures include oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, sealants, and other measures.


Oral hygiene is the most important measure for preventing dental caries. It involves cleaning the teeth regularly and effectively to remove plaque and food debris that harbor bacteria and acids. It includes brushing the teeth twice a day with a soft-bristled toothbrush and a fluoride toothpaste; flossing the teeth once a day to clean interproximal surfaces; rinsing the mouth with water or a mouthwash after eating or drinking; and visiting a dentist regularly for professional cleaning and check-up.


Fluoride is another essential measure for preventing dental caries. It is a mineral that strengthens the enamel and makes it more resistant to acid attack. It also enhances remineralization and inhibits bacterial growth and metabolism. It can be obtained from various sources such as drinking water (if fluoridated), toothpaste (if containing fluoride), mouthwash (if containing fluoride), supplements (if prescribed by a dentist), or varnish (if applied by a dentist).


and phosphate; and eating foods that stimulate saliva flow, such as cheese or sugar-free gum.


Sealants are another effective measure for preventing dental caries. They are thin coatings of resin or glass ionomer that are applied to the pits and fissures of the chewing surfaces of the molars and premolars. They act as physical barriers that prevent plaque and food from accumulating in these areas and causing caries. They can be applied by a dentist or a dental hygienist to children or adults who are at high risk of caries.


Other measures are additional measures for preventing dental caries. They involve using various products or techniques that have anti-caries properties or effects. These include xylitol, a natural sweetener that inhibits bacterial growth and acid production; chlorhexidine, an antiseptic agent that reduces plaque and gingivitis; silver diamine fluoride, a topical agent that arrests active caries and prevents new ones; and remineralizing agents, such as casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), that enhance enamel remineralization and repair.


The treatment of dental caries: Non-invasive, minimally invasive, and invasive interventions




The treatment of dental caries is the next step for managing dental caries that have already developed and progressed in the teeth. It involves various interventions that aim to stop or slow down the disease process and restore the tooth structure and function. These interventions can be classified into three main categories: non-invasive interventions, minimally invasive interventions, and invasive interventions.


Non-invasive interventions are the first-line interventions for treating dental caries. They involve applying or prescribing agents that promote remineralization or arrest demineralization without removing any tooth structure. They include fluoride (as toothpaste, mouthwash, varnish, or gel), silver diamine fluoride (as a topical agent), xylitol (as a chewing gum or lozenge), chlorhexidine (as a mouthwash or gel), and remineralizing agents (such as CPP-ACP). They are suitable for treating initial or moderate lesions that are not cavitated.


Minimally invasive interventions are the second-line interventions for treating dental caries. They involve removing a minimal amount of tooth structure and applying or placing agents that seal or restore the lesion. They include sealants (as resin or glass ionomer coatings), infiltration (as resin infiltration into enamel lesions), microabrasion (as removal of superficial enamel stains or defects), air abrasion (as removal of shallow enamel or dentin lesions), and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) (as removal of soft carious tissue and placement of glass ionomer restorations). They are suitable for treating moderate lesions that are cavitated but not deep.


Invasive interventions are the last-resort interventions for treating dental caries. They involve removing a substantial amount of tooth structure and placing restorations that replace the lost structure and function. They include conventional restorative treatment (CRT) (as removal of carious tissue and placement of amalgam, composite, ceramic, or metal restorations), endodontic treatment (as removal of infected pulp tissue and filling of root canals), and extraction (as removal of the whole tooth). They are suitable for treating advanced lesions that are deep or involve the pulp.


The restoration of dental caries: Materials, techniques, and outcomes




The restoration of dental caries is the final step for managing dental caries that have resulted in tooth damage or loss. It involves using various materials and techniques to restore the form, function, and aesthetics of the teeth. It includes topics such as the materials, techniques, and outcomes of dental restorations.


Materials are the substances that are used to restore teeth affected by caries. They have different properties and characteristics that affect their performance and suitability for different situations. They can be classified into four main categories: metals, ceramics, composites, and glass ionomers.


Metals are materials that are composed of metallic elements or alloys. They have high strength, durability, biocompatibility, and corrosion resistance, but low aesthetics, thermal conductivity, and wear resistance. They include amalgam (an alloy of mercury and silver with other metals), gold (a pure metal or an alloy with other metals), and base metals (such as nickel-chromium or cobalt-chromium).


wear resistance, and thermal insulation, but low strength, toughness, and fracture resistance. They include porcelain (a glassy ceramic with feldspar, quartz, and kaolin), zirconia (a polycrystalline ceramic with zirconium dioxide), and alumina (a polycrystalline ceramic with aluminum oxide).


Composites are materials that are composed of organic and inorganic components that are bonded together by a resin matrix. They have moderate strength, durability, aesthetics, biocompatibility, and wear resistance, but low thermal conductivity and high polymerization shrinkage. They include resin composites (a mixture of resin and filler particles), compomers (a hybrid of resin and glass ionomer), and ormocers (a hybrid of resin and ceramic).


Glass ionomers are materials that are composed of a glass powder and an aqueous solution of polyacrylic acid. They have low strength, durability, aesthetics, and wear resistance, but high biocompatibility, fluoride release, and adhesion to tooth structure. They include conventional glass ionomers (a mixture of glass and acid), resin-modified glass ionomers (a mixture of glass, acid, and resin), and metal-reinforced glass ionomers (a mixture of glass, acid, and metal).


Techniques are the methods that are used to place restorations in teeth affected by caries. They have different steps and procedures that affect the quality and longevity of the restorations. They can be classified into two main categories: direct techniques and indirect techniques.


Direct techniques are techniques that involve placing restorations directly in the prepared cavity or defect in the tooth. They are simple, fast, and inexpensive, but they have limitations in accuracy, adaptation, and stability. They include direct filling (as placing amalgam or composite in the cavity), direct bonding (as placing composite or ceramic veneers on the tooth surface), and direct pulp capping (as placing calcium hydroxide or mineral trioxide aggregate on the exposed pulp).


Indirect techniques are techniques that involve fabricating restorations outside the mouth and then cementing them to the prepared tooth. They are complex, time-consuming, and expensive, but they have advantages in precision, fit, and strength. They include indirect filling (as placing gold or ceramic inlays or onlays in the cavity), indirect bonding (as placing ceramic or metal crowns or bridges on the tooth), and indirect pulp capping (as placing a dentin substitute or a liner under the restoration).


Outcomes are the results that are achieved by restoring teeth affected by caries. They have different criteria and indicators that measure the success and failure of the restorations. They can be classified into three main categories: functional outcomes, biological outcomes, and aesthetic outcomes.


Functional outcomes are outcomes that relate to the ability of the restorations to perform their intended functions. They include chewing efficiency, occlusal stability, marginal integrity, wear resistance, fracture resistance, and longevity.


Biological outcomes are outcomes that relate to the compatibility of the restorations with the surrounding tissues. They include pulp vitality, periapical health, gingival health, plaque accumulation, caries recurrence, and hypersensitivity.


shape match, contour match, surface texture, translucency, and gloss.


The best books on cariology: How to learn more about the disease and its clinical management




By reading this article, you have gained a lot of information and insights about cariology. However, if you want to learn more about the disease and its clinical management, you may want to read some books on cariology that provide more details and examples. In this section, we will recommend some of the best books on cariology that you can download in mobi format and read on your device. We will cover topics such as Cariology by Ernest Newbrun, Dental Caries: The Disease and its Clinical Management by Edwina Kidd et al., and Caries Management - Science and Clinical Practice by Hendrik Meyer-Lueckel et al.


Cariology by Ernest Newbrun




Cariology by Ernest Newbrun is a classic textbook on cariology that was first published in 1978 and revised in 1989. It covers the basic and clinical aspects of cariology in a comprehensive and authoritative manner. It includes topics such as the history


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